Plants grow and reproduce through a process we call photosynthesis and sexual or asexual reproduction.
The process by which plants convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose (sugar) and oxygen is known as photosynthesis. Chlorophyll, which is found in chloroplasts in plant cells, turns solar energy into chemical energy that can be utilized by the plant.
Plants can reproduce sexually or asexually. In sexual reproduction, male and female gametes (reproductive cells) combine to create a zygote. The zygote eventually grows into a new plant. A flower’s female reproductive organs produce the female gamete which is contained within the ovule. On the other hand, a flower’s male reproductive organs produce the male gamete which is contained within pollen.
Asexual reproduction can produce new plants without the need for gametes or fertilization. This can occur using a variety of techniques, including growing new plants from specialized structures like runners, bulbs, or tubers or growing new plants from the original plant’s parts via grafts or cuttings. A process known as mitosis, which occurs when a plant achieves maturity, enables it to continue growing by incorporating new cells into its tissues. Various factors such as light, temperature, water, and nutrients can influence the growth of plants.